Types of Prostate Cancer
- Localized cancer – Contained within the prostate.
- Locally advanced cancer.
- Recurrent cancer comes back after previous treatment.
- Metastatic cancer – This condition happens when cancer progresses and spreads to other parts of the body.
Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer
- Age – The chances of having prostate cancer increase with advancing age.
- Ethnicity – Black men are more likely to get prostate cancer.
- Family history – Prostate cancer is related to the priority of treatment, which increases the risk.
- Diet and obesity are also significant contributing factors.
Signs and Symptoms
In the clinic, the patient shows symptoms of :
- Difficulty in urination, frequent urination, problems in starting urination, blood in the urine.
- PSA (protein-specific antigen) levels in the blood are too high.
- Bone fractures can be observed in advanced cases of cancer.
- There may be urinary incontinence and an inability to control bowel movements in advanced cases.
Tests and Diagnosis
- Health reports of the patient are taken into consideration.
- Prostate cancer is generally detected by a PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test.
- DRE – Digital Rectal Examination and rectal ultrasound is also done which helps in the diagnosis.
- A biopsy is usually done to verify the diagnosis.
- To find out the stage of cancer, an imaging test such as a bone CT scan or MRI scan.
- It depends on the growth of cancer in the prostate gland.
- In the initial stages, the purpose of treatment is to cure.
- In advanced stages, the focus is on improving life and relieving symptoms.
- Health conditions and age of the patient.
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Regular screenings will allow the physician to closely monitor the patient’s prostate cancer without immediate treatment.
The major benefit of this surgery is to remove cancer in the prostate.
Prostatectomy – It is generally performed for:
- Clinically limited cancer.
- Young age and fast-spreading cancer.
- In this procedure, the surgeon eliminates the whole prostate gland and may remove its nearby tissues, lymph nodes, and seminal vesicles.
- Removing the lymph node decreases the risk of it coming back.
- Laparoscopically or openly, the procedure is performed.
- Observing recovery.
- Insert a tube to remove excess fluids.
- Insertion of the catheter.
- Stocking and pumps decrease the risk of developing a clot.
- In 7 – 10 days, a cystogram is done and the catheter is removed.
- The patient is able to return to normal activities within 2 – 4 weeks.
- Medication is prescribed to help with the firmness of the penis.
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Risks associated with surgery
- Blood clots
- Damage to nearby organs
- Erectile dysfunction
- Urinary Incontinence
This therapy uses high-energy beams of X-rays to treat prostate cancer by damaging the cells. It is useful in cases when:
- Cancer is in its early stages and is confined to the prostate.
- If cancer has spread to nearby tissue, hormonal therapy is the preferred treatment.
- For recurrence of cancer.
- Palliative relief for advanced cancers.
Types of Radiation Therapy
- Brachytherapy – It is also known as seed implantation. Here small radioactive pellets are inserted into the prostate and they emit radiation at a low dose over some weeks or months.
- External Beam Radiation also known as EBRT – In this procedure, beams are focused on the prostate from the exterior of the body.
After Effects of Radiation
- Bowel problems – diarrhea, blood in the stool.
- Urinary symptoms – radiation cystitis, urinary incontinence.
- Erection problems.
- It is a short-term therapy. It does not cure cancer, but slows its growth or uses palliative therapy in metastatic cases.
- Its goal is to restrict the production or activity of hormones that kill prostate cancer cells and reduce prostate tumors.
- Hormone therapy is given alone or in combination with other treatments.
Types of Hormone Therapy
- Orchiectomy – Removal of testicles by surgery.
- Drug therapy – It reduces hormone levels by blocking the brain’s signal. Its effects may be reversible.
- LH – RH Analogue therapy – It restricts the production of the hormone.
- Anti Androgen therapy – It restricts the activity of the hormone used before LHRH therapy to stop androgen spread.
After Effects of Hormonal Therapy
- Hot flushes.
- Reduced sex drive.
- Decreased ability to have erections.
- Decreased muscle strength.
- Can cause bone thinning.
- This can lead to dyslipidemia.
Factors Affecting Cost of Prostate Cancer Surgery
The cost of surgery depends on the patient and several factors. It includes:
- The hospital, the patient chooses.
- Room – Quality single room, luxurious room. Super luxurious room for the number of nights indicated (includes a nursing fee, meals, room cost, and room services).
- There is a fee for the team of doctors.
- Quality tests and diagnostic procedures.
- Type of surgery performed.
- Cost of radiation/hormone therapy.
- Cost of the protection and care required during and after surgery.