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Scoliosis Treatment in India: Causes, Symptoms & Surgery

Scoliosis Treatment in India: Causes, Symptoms & Surgery

  • November 28, 2022
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What is Scoliosis Surgery?

Scoliosis is a medical term used for the sideward curvature of the spine. This condition is known as abnormal spinal curvature. It is generally found in childhood or early adolescence. The normal curve of the spine takes place in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions which are called the “sagittal” plane. During surgery, these natural curves place the head above the pelvis and act as shock absorbers to reduce mechanical stress.

Scoliosis is also known as Spinal Fusion Surgery (SFS) in which two or more vertebrae together help to arrange the spine and prevent the curvature from further progression. Most people who have scoliosis do not require any treatment. But in the case of severe conditions in childhood, scoliosis treatment may be necessary.

Types of Scoliosis Surgery

There are two basic types of Scoliosis Surgery:

In normal conditions, the location of the spine is straight down the center of the body. Scoliosis is characterized by a sideward curve in the spine. The point of the curve may be tiny, large, or in between them. A curve can appear either as a “C” or an “S” shape. It is based on the type of curve. Treatment is not required in all cases of scoliosis, but in some cases, the progression of problems and relief of pain is necessary.

Causes of Scoliosis Surgery

Scoliosis can be divided by etiology – Idiopathic, Congenital, or neuromuscular. 80% of all scoliosis is idiopathic. The cause of this condition is not known.

Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery – Scoliosis of this kind accounts for 80% of all cases. It is most commonly found in adults. It is checked during puberty.

Congenital Scoliosis Surgery – It is due to an embryological malformation of one or more vertebrae and may be found in any area of the spine. The unusual vertebrae can cause curvature and other disorders of the spine because one side of the spinal column expands at a lower rate than the other. The geometry and area of the irregularities determine the progression of scoliosis. Because these irregularities are present at birth, congenital scoliosis can be observed at a younger age than idiopathic scoliosis.

Neuromuscular Scoliosis Surgery – Secondary scoliosis may also be caused by neurological or muscular diseases. This scoliosis is related to cerebral palsy, spinal cord trauma, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscle atrophy, and spinal Bifida. The progression of this scoliosis is faster than idiopathic scoliosis and needs surgical treatment.

Signs and Symptoms of Scoliosis Surgery

There are many signs which show the chances of scoliosis. If you observe more than one symptom. You consult with your doctor:

  • Shoulders are irregular – one or both shoulder blades may stand out.
  • The head is not directly above the pelvis.
  • One or both hips are increased or unusually high.
  • The lengths of rib cages are different.
  • The appearance or surface of the skin over the spine changes (dimpling, hairy products, changes in color, irregularities).
  • The whole body includes one side.

Treatment of Scoliosis Surgery

After the diagnosis of scoliosis, treatment options are available according to the patient’s condition. There are different procedures used in the treatment of scoliosis.

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Procedures for Scoliosis Surgery

Surgery is generally necessary when treating severe scoliosis. Some of the procedures include:

Spinal Fusion Surgery

Many spinal disorders need some differences from spinal fusion surgery for treatment. Fusion is a process where the vertebrae are united together or the use of bone grafts. The source of bone grafts includes the ribs, spine, or even pelvis. Generally, this process takes three months to completely heal. During the recovery time, your doctor will observe the fusion progression through an X-ray image.

Osteotomy 

An osteotomy refers to a procedure in which the injured bones are cut and removed. This procedure is performed either before or after surgery. To treat scoliotic curves, your doctor will use an osteotomy procedure to treat spinal disorders.

Video – Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) 

This procedure is used for patients with a thoracic curvature of the spine. During the VATS procedure, your doctor will make small cuts called portals in the area of your chest. Surgeons use cameras, scopes, and video monitoring instruments to help with the procedure. All these devices will make them less invasive or provide better outcomes.

Thoracoplasty

Thorracoplasty is a corrective surgical procedure that aims to decrease the size of the rib hump. This procedure includes the partial removal of five ribs. It is done in combination with other scoliosis corrective surgeries, but it can be performed as a separate procedure completely at different times. In some cases, your doctor will require you to install a chest tube that will remain for a day or two, depending on how the procedure is completed.

Hemivertebrae Excision

Hemivertebrae are wedge-shaped vertebral bodies. In normal conditions, vertebrae are rectangular. The spinal disorder begins before birth and it leads to scoliosis when the patient grows.

If the patient shows a lack of balance the hemivertebrae will be surgically eliminated. Doctors use this procedure before or after surgery, but mostly after. Your doctor will insert rods and screws for the procedure or the patient will be required to wear a brace for several months after surgery.

Recovery process

Scoliosis is major surgery. A patient should have some pain afterward. They need to remain in the hospital for several days for observation. A patient can walk immediately after surgery. Avoid heavy lifting and excessive exercise for about 6 months. Your doctor can prescribe physical therapy or pain medication for a faster recovery.

Risk of Scoliosis

In most cases, scoliosis has no side effects. But some of the risks include:

  • Infection
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Ineffective surgery
  • Damage to the spinal cord or spinal bones
  • Chronic pain
  • Loss of spinal mobility
  • Neurological damage
  • Death

Conclusion

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine. It can be minor or severe. Minor injuries do not require treatment, but severe injuries can be painful and may lead to other health problems.

Spinal fusion surgery involves the fusion of two or more vertebrae to correct spinal curvature. Surgery for scoliosis also has some risks and complications. You should consult your doctor about the risks and benefits before treatment. Your doctor will prevent the risk of serious complications.

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FAQ’S

What are the best exercises for Scoliosis Surgery?

Exercises effective for Scoliosis Surgery are:

  • Proper posture for Scoliosis surgery.
  • Pelvic lifts.
  • Cat camel.
  • Double-leg abdominal press.
  • Single leg balance.
  • Plank exercise.

What are the best hospitals for Scoliosis Surgery in India?

Some of the most prestigious hospitals include:

  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Indian Spinal Injury Center, New Delhi
  • Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
  • Apollo Hospitals, Greams Road, Chennai
  • Manipal Hospital, Bangalore
  • Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
  • AMRI Hospital, Kolkata
  • Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad
  • Apollo Hospital, Mumbai